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These are the jobs with the highest and lowest risk of automation

Researchers from the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale, in Switzerland, conducted a study in which they analyzed which jobs face the highest and lowest risk of automation. The objective was to raise awareness and evaluate what actions could be taken in order to mitigate the unemployment that could arise from this situation.


It is important to predict which jobs might be automated in the future and what workers might do to move to occupations with lower risk of automation”, is mentioned at the beginning of the report.

To carry out the research, different occupations were evaluated and took into account the extent to which artificial intelligence can replace the human skills required for those jobs.


The method is based on a correspondence between the human skills required in each job, defined in the O*NET database (a service developed by the US Department of Employment) and the skills of the robots, specified within the European framework H2020 Robotics MAR.

In relation to this last point, both the physical abilities of the robots that exist today were taken into account, as well as the analytical resolution capabilities of other artificial intelligence systems.


Based on all this information, the automation index was elaborated and the following conclusion was reached:

Jobs with lower risk of automation:

1. Physical


2. Neurologists

3. Physicians specialized in Preventive Medicine

4. Neuropsychologists

5. Pathologists

6. Mathematicians

7. CEOs

8. Surgeons

9. Molecular Biologists

10. epidemiologists

Jobs most at risk of automation:

1. Slaughterhouses and Meat Packers

2. Work in the textile, clothing and related materials industry

3. Classifiers and selectors of agricultural products

4. Custodial and cleaning staff

5. Assistants and orderly

6. Packers

7. Dining room assistants, cafeteria assistants and bartenders

8. Food preparation workers

9. Domestic workers

10. Vehicle and equipment cleaning staff

The purpose of this report is that measures be taken to organize the workforce, in the face of this new reality.

Likewise, it is expected to raise awareness among governments, workers and employers so that they carry out actions in favor of an economic transformation. which will eventually be positive, but whose transition must be organized to reduce exclusion.

“Governments could use the proposed method to assess the unemployment risk of their populations and adjust educational policies. Robotics companies could use it as a tool to better understand the needs of the marketand members of the public could use it to identify the easiest route to reposition themselves in the labor market.

In the current context of constant technological change, workers may have to retrain and take new career paths several times in their lives before they retire. Hence, it is vital that governments establish clear policies to train the workforce that carries out tasks that will be automated, so that they can perform other types of tasks.

Also, it is relevant data to plan educational strategies for future generations, so that they prepare for jobs in which more and more humans will be needed.

“The results of our method can contribute to assessing the unemployment risks of the active population and design effective welfare policies that mitigate the socioeconomic effects of the next industrial revolution”, the specialists conclude.


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